To understand the conflict, you must first know the story of how Israel was formed and the historical conflicts between Arabs and Jews.
The Arabs and Jews have always stayed together during ancient times. They were ruled by different rulers starting with Persians, Muslims and later Christians. But with time, specially under the rule by Christians, there were constant conflicts between Arabs and Jews, mostly for land.
The control of Jerusalem, the holy city for Jews as well as Christians and Muslims was also a matter of conflict.
Jews wanted to settle in a nation all for themselves. They also wanted the city of Jerusalem. But a separate nation for Jews was not on the cards until after the First World War. Mass extermination by the Nazis resulted in Jews spreading out all across the world. Later, after the war, when the need for establishment of a separate Jewish state became eminent, many Jews from around the world came back to settle along areas around Jerusalem, which constitute much of today’s Israel.
The Israelis declared the formation of a separate Jewish state. This however, irked the Arabs. Jordan and Egypt attacked Israel from east and south but the well trained and sophisticated Israeli army not only survived the attacks, but also retaliated tactfully and vigorously resulting in large casualties on the Arab side.
Israel then proceeded to take over the land it had owned previously.
The Area A is the one governed by the State of Palestine. The Area B is one under joint control of Israel and Palestine and area C is the area under Israeli control
The land originally taken over by Egypt came to be called the Gaza Strip whereas the land adjoining Jordan was called the West Bank.
These areas united as the state of Palestine under the rule of Palestinian Liberal Organisation.
Until this point, Palestine was not a nation and was described by most international bodies as a geographical section under unrest, independent of control by any government.
In 2007, Fatah and Hamas, the two main factions of the Palestinian Authority split, resulting in Hamas controlling the Gaza Strip leaving Fatah in command of the West Bank.
Various attempts were made to unite Hamas and Fatah since 2007, resulting in many agreements through 2013.
In January 2013, the UN recognised Palestine as an Observer State. This gave an impetus to the cause of unity and in June 2014, the two factions entered into an agreement coming to terms on how the State of Palestine would be governed.
Through all these years, along with internal conflicts, Palestine was in constant war with the Israelis against their territory expansion and control of Palestine. Missile strikes and Kidnappings of Israelis by Palestine were met with air strikes by the Israelis. Some countries have even declared Hamas as a terrorist organisation due to these activities.
All of these events make the Israel-Palestine borders one of the most complex ones in the world.
In all this tussle, many civilian lives are lost. The economy of Palestine has suffered resulting in a steady decline of quality of life and instability for the masses.
The two most popular solutions proposed are :
- Palestine as a separate nation and both countries come to a settlement
- Palestine becomes a part of Israel as a single nation.
Both of these solutions have prominent supporters. However, opponents to these solutions also have their own set of concerns. The question of how a settlement can be reached can be answered by time alone.